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Topic: Chapter 15 - Business Communication B.Com Part II Management Notes  (Read 7091 times)
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« on: July 16, 2010, 09:01:29 PM »

Chapter 15 - Business Communication

* Communication and its elements

* Objectives of Communication

* Advantages and Disadvantages of Communication

* Various types of Communication

Q.1. Define Communication & its elements.
Communication Defined

The term communication has been derived from the Latin work communis which means commons. It refers to the serial of contact process. Communication is a continuous process of telling, ordering, commanding, listening, questioning and answering.


Communication is one of the Fundamental Functions of Management

Communication is the conveying of information from one person to another. It is two-way exchange of ideas and information that leads to a common understanding. In other words, communication means perfect identity of mind. Though the communication underlies all functions of management, it assumes greater importance in the function of directing. For the successful leadership and manager ship, communication is a must. Communication means and includes every device that may be used to convey meaning from one person to another. A few definitions of communications are given below.

Allen
Communication is the sum of all things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.

Haimann
Communication means the process of passing information from one person to another. It is the process of importing ideas and making oneself understood by others.

Newman and Summer
An exchange of facts, ideas, opinion or emotions by two or more persons.
To sum up, communication is the process of passing and understanding information from one person to another.


Elements of Communication

A communication passes through the following five processes:

1. Preparing the message, i.e., any fact, idea, order, complaint, etc.
2. Sending the message by the sender.
3. Receiving the message by the receiver.
4. Channelizing the communication.
5. Symbolising the communication or encoding.
Communication is an all-pervading field of human contact, exchange of views. It can well be summed up through these lines. Communication is generally understood as spoken or written words. But in reality, it is more than that, it is the sum total of feelings, actions, gestures and tones. Even silence is an effective form of communication. A twist in the face is often a more expressive disapproval than hundreds of words put together.

Q.2. Define the Objectives of Communication.
Objectives of Communication

1. Information Sharing

The main purpose of communication is to transmit information form a source to target individuals or groups. Various types of information's are transmitted in the organisation-policies and rules and changes and development in the organisation etc.


2. Feedback

There is a need to give good feedback to the employees on their achievements, to the departments on their performance and to the higher management of the fulfillment of goals and difficulties encountered.


3. Control

The management information system is well known as a control mechanism. Information is transmitted to ensure that the plans are being carried out according to the original design. Communication helps in ensuring such control, a monitoring mechanism.


4. Influence

Information is power and one purpose of communication is to influence people. The manager communicates to create a good climate, right attitude and congenial working relationship.


5. Problem Solving

In many cases, communication aims at solving problems. Communication between management and the union on some issues (negotiation) is aimed at finding a solution. Many group meetings are held to discuss alternative solutions for a problem and to evolve a solution.


6. Decision Making

For arriving at a decision several kinds of communication are needed, e.g., exchange of information, views available, alternatives, favorable points to each alternative, Communication helps a great deal in decision making.


7. Facilitating Change

The effectiveness of a change introduced in an organisation depends to a large extent on the clarity and spontaneity of the communication. Communication between the consultants and the managers between the managers and the employees and amongst the employees help in knowing the difficulties in the planned change and in taking corrective action.


8. Group Building

Communication helps to build linkages of the organisation with the outside world. The organisation can use its environment to increase its effectiveness. It can also influence the environment itself the government, client system, the resource system etc. Communication plays a critical role in this respect.

Q.3. Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of Verbal and Written Communication.


Verbal Communication

When a message is communicated verbally and not is writing by exchanging the words in face communication or through telephone or through the other visual aids, etc., it is called Verbal Communication. It may take place at meetings, interviews, etc.


Advantages of Verbal Communication

Verbal Communication has the following advantages:


1. Saving of Time

The greatest advantages of verbal communication, is saving of time. Under this system of communication the messages are communicated immediately without consuming any time. Verbal communication is the only way out during urgent condition and when immediate action is necessary.


2. Saving of Money

As there is no formal method of communicating the message, no help of any particular media of communication is taken, this type of communication saves a lot of money.


3. More Effective

As there is direct touch of the sender of message with the receiver of message these messages prove to be more effective. The sender of message can also exercise his personal influence over the receiver of message.


4. Knowledge of Reaction of Message

An important advantage of verbal communication is that under this method of communication, the sender of message can judge the reaction of the message on its receiver. He comes to know whether the receiver of the message will follow it or not.


5. Clear Doubts

Verbal Communication is also better form the point of view that the doubts regarding the message, if any, between the sender and the receiver of message can immediately be cleared and the receiver of the message can immediately get the explanations regarding any point or the message.


6. Increase in Productivity and Efficiency

Verbal communication is more effective. It increases the productivity and efficiency of workers because they clearly understand it and follow it.


Disadvantages of Verbal Communication

Verbal communication has the following disadvantages:


1. Lack of Proof of Message

The greatest disadvantages of verbal communication is that there is no proof of the message communicated.


2. Not Suitable for Future Reference

As there is nothing in writing supporting the messages communicated under this method, it is not suitable for future reference. If there is any dispute on any point of the message, it cannot be helped in any way.


3. Not Suitable in Case of Distance

If the receiver and the sender of the message are living at a distance from each other, this method of communication is not suitable because it will increase the cost of communication, it will no be effective because of lack of personal touch and it may not be clear and explanatory.


Written Communication

When a message is communicated in writing, it is called Written Communication. Written Communication takes place in the form of letters, circular, reports, magazines, notice board, handbook, notice etc. Written Communication is generally, used for communicating a message from the top management to the subordinates. Written message must be clear and understandable. It must be brief and self-explanatory and must be prepared in a simple language. The language must be polite and sweet so that the receiver of the message may easily accept it. If possible, it must be in the printed form.


Advantages of Written Communication

1. No need of Personal Contact

In written communication there is no need of personal contact:


2. Economical

If the receiver and sender of the message are at a distance, it is economical to communicate the message in writing because communicating by post is cheap and quite economical.


3. Written Proof

A great advantage of written communication is that it provides a proof for future reference. If there is any dispute on any point in this regard, the message may be referred.


4. Clear and Explanatory

Written messages are very clear and self-explanatory. The receiver of the message can easily follow it and understand it.


Disadvantages of Written Communication

Written communication has the following disadvantages:


1. Delay

The greatest disadvantage of written communication is the delay in communication. The message is writing is communicated after a certain process is completed. It is prepared, verified and order by the concerned officer. Consequently, the message is delayed.


2. Lack of Secrecy

Another great disadvantage of written communication is that secrecy cannot be maintained because these messages can be read by anyone.


3. Costly

A written communication involves heavily expenditure. If the receiver and sender of message are near to each other, it is fairly costly to communicate in writing.

Q.4. Explain the various types of Communication.


Types of Communication

These are as explained below:


According to the Organizational Structure

1. Formal Communication

Such communication is associated with the formal organisation structure. Communication travels through the formal channel we very other hear the phrase through proper channel; it explains the essence of formal channel. This is a deliberate attempt to regulate the flow of organizational communication so as to make it orderly and thereby to ensure that information flows smoothly, accurately and timely. This formal channel is the path of line authority linking the position to its line superior. It is also known as Channel of Command. Its implications is that all communication to and from a position should flow through the line superior or subordinate only, i.e., through the scalar chain. This type of formal communication is known as single-path communication. There may be multiple channel communication which improves communication through more than one path at a time.


Advantages of Formal Communication

1. It helps maintain the authority of line officers that control the subordinates and fixes the responsibility for the activities done.

2. An immediate superior has a direct contact with his subordinates. It helps understand the attitude and behaviour of each other well.

3. Since an officer knows better about the organisation and his subordinates, solutions of problems become easy.


Disadvantages of Formal Communication

1. It increases the workload of the line superior because all communications are transmitted through them. It leaves no time to perform other functions well.

2. It enables the chances of more transmission errors and reduces accuracy of the message.

3. It is not good for upward communication because officers overlook the interest of their subordinates. It implies delay tactics and red-tapism.

4. It has generally happened that the contact of distinct subordinates with the topmost superior is far and remote. They do not even recognize each other. It adversely affects the relationship.


Informal Communication

Such communication is free from all formalities because they are based on the informal relationship because the parties. Such communication includes comments, suggestions or any other informal reactions. Such types of communication are also called grapevine communication. They may be conveyed by a simple glance, gesture, nod, smile or silence too. It is not the result of any official action but of the operation of personal, social and group relations of the people. Informal communication is unplanned but may follow a predictable pattern.


Advantages of Informal Communication

1. Communication is always transmitted at a greater speed and is more flexible.

2. It is dynamic and reacts quickly to its changing environment.

3. It meets the social needs of people, which are not met by formal communication.

4. It provides a means for exchange of mutually beneficial information between people who are not linked through formal channels.


Disadvantages of Informal Communication

1. It is less orderly and less static, any action taken on the basis of such communication may be erratic and may lead the organisation in difficulty.

2. It very often carries half-truth, rumours and distorted information and it is difficult to fix the responsibility of such erratic information.


According to Direction of Communication

According to direction of communication, the communication may be of following three types:


1. Downward Communication

Communication which flow forms the superiors to subordinates with the help of scalar chain, is known as downward communication. They include orders, instruction, rules, policies, programmes and directions etc. There nature is directive.


2. Upward Communication

Upward communications are just reverse of the downward communications. Feedback to the higher authorities by the lower level is an upward communication. It flow form the subordinates to their superiors through the line. Such communication includes suggestions, opinion, reactions, complaints and grievance, etc. Generally the superior ignores this type of communication but in modern times it is regarded as the main source of motivation in employees.


3. Horizontal Communication

It refers to transmission of information among positions of the same level, i.e., when communication takes place between two or more persons of the same level under the same superior, it is known as horizontal communication. Such communication is to coordinates the efforts of the person working under various departments. It removes duplication of work and thus minimizes the wastage of time, money and labour.


According to Way of Expressions

On the basis of their expression communication may be divided in two categories oral and written.


Oral Communication

Transmission with the help of spoken words is a common system of communication. In oral communication both parties in the process exchange their ideas through oral words either face-to-face or through any mechanical device such as telephone, etc. Meetings, lectures, conferences are some other media of such communication.


Advantages of Oral Communication

1. It saves time and money.

2. It is more effective, Gesture, tones and facial expression make the communication effective and efficient.

3. The communicator knows the reaction of communicate. They may even clear the doubts, if any in the minds of other party.

4. It is the only way out during emergencies.

5. It is more convenient to measure the effect of communication. The communicator can easily guess whether the recipient is following him or not.
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